Sunday, November 24, 2019
over population in Pakistan Essays
over population in Pakistan Essays over population in Pakistan Essay over population in Pakistan Essay In human biology, the whole numbers of residents take up an area (such as a country or the world) and frequently being changed by increases (births and migrations) and losses (deaths and migrations). What is Over Population? The term Over Population or Population Explosion is used to express the idea of more population for fewer resources. Population Situation in Pakistan: According to the economic survey of Pakistan 2010-11, the total population of Pakistan is 177. 1 million against the 173. 5 million in last year. Population growth rate is 2. 1 % and in the list of most populous countries, Pakistan is at 6th number. CAUSES OF OVER POPULATION Following are the main causes of over population in Pakistan: ALLAH RAZIQ Muslims have a solid belief that God gives food to everyone even to an ant living in a stone. So, why they reduce the size of family? No or Less Opportunity Cost 71 % Women are not active in economic activities in Pakistan. Women have no any economic loss while having a childe. Opportunity cost for having a childe is very low r zero in Pakistan. Low Per Capita Income We know that per capita income derives by dividing national income on total population. Low per capita income shows population explosion. Per capita income in Pakistan $ 1254. Unemployment Unemployment is also a symbol of over population. It is difficult to adjust the huge High Population Growth Rate The birth rate is very high which shows that our country is over populated. Rapid growth rate of population is 2. 1 % in Pakistan. Need for More Earning Hands A single person cannot sport his large family in developing countries like Pakistan. He hinks to have more children to be more earning hands. Afghan Refugees An arrival of refugees from India and especially from Afghanistan is also resulting in more population. Low Death Rate Reduction in death rate is another cause of over population. Death rate in 1951 was 2. 8 % while it just 0. 73 % in 2010-11. Low Standard of Living It is observed that in Pakistan people with low income have more children. It is difficult to support such large size family. It results in low living standard of the population. Warm Climate Due to the warm climate, youth and maturity is attained at an early age. It also results in rapid population growth. Absence of Family Planning Effective family planning is not available in Pakistan. People are not familiar with the methods of family planning. They feel hesitation to consult a doctor. Joint Family System There is competition among the family member in accordance with the family size in joint family system. It is also a cause for rapid growth of children. Early Marriages duration for re-productivity is very lengthy. Illiteracy Due to lack of education, people are not aware of with the economic problems caused by high birth rate. Literacy rate is 57. % in Pakistan. Inefficient Population Dependency ratio is very high in our county. Only 32. 17 % population take part in economic activities and other 67. 83 % depends upon them. It views as a pressure on land and population expulsion. Polygamy Practice Polygamy is the condition or practice of having more than one wife at one time. The existence of polygamy also contributes to the increase in population. Urbanization Due to rural urban migration and lack of facilities in cities, there are many social problems. It results in increase in urban population. Higher rate of urbanization is an ndicator of over population. Low Saving Investment The rate of saving and investment of GDP are only 9. 5% and 13. 4% respectively in Pakistan. Rate of investment and employment is also very low due to low rate of savings. So these indicate that Pakistan is over populated. Poor Nutrition People in Pakistan get poor diet, which affects the health and working capacity. It reduces the per capita income, which is a sign of population explosion. Concept of Large Family Large family size is considered as a source of power to influence people and to control the persons around them. People feel pride to have a large family. Vicious Circle of Poverty Very high population growth rate reduces the per capita income, saving, investment and productivity. A country is thus caught up in vicious circle of poverty. Vicious circle Universality of Marriage All men and women of marriageable age enter into wedlock. As such the birth rate is higher in Pakistan. Absence of Other Activities There is absence of recreational facilities and employment opportunities in Pakistan. Time passing and any other enjoyments in Pakistan are very costly. So, people have a more time to spend with thetr wives. EFFECTS OF OVER POPULATION Low Per Capital Income The population growth reduces per capita income of the people because national income is divided by a big size of population. Per capital income of Pakistan is $ 1254 dunng 2010-11. Unemployment, Under-employment and Disguised-unemployment It is impossible to provide Jobs to such highly growing population in Pakistan. It results in unemployment, under-employment and disguised-unemployment. Rate of unemployment in Pakistan is 5. 6%. Low Growth of Agriculture Sector Very fast growth rate of population is a pressure on land. It caused to use of gricultural products at domestic level, increase in the landless workers and shortage of food. Growth rate of agriculture sector is 1. 2%. Low Saving and Low Investment The rapidly increasing population increases the expenditure of government. It reduces the saving and investment. Low level of saving investment means economic backwardness. Domestic savings are 9. 5% of GDP and total investment is 13. 4% of GDP dunng 2010-11. High Rate of Inflation There is more demand for goods due to more population. More demand results in more prices and inflation in the country. Rate of inflation is 14. % in Pakistan. Pollution with billion dollars of resources but do not install treatment plants of million rupees. The rapid growth of population creates pollution, unplanned colonies and environment problems. Backward Social Infrastructure Rapidly growing population creates economic and social problems such as housing, education, health, transport, water, power etc. Very high rate of population growth lowers the per capita income, which caused in low saving and low investment that result in low rate of capital formation. All this forms the vicious circle of poverty. Low Living Standard Rising population cannot be provided the basic facilities of life in developing countries like Pakistan. So, rising population means low living standard. About 21 % population is living below poverty line. Adverse Balance of Payment Over populated nation has to import various items to support a huge population. On the other hand their export decreases. Due to over population our balance of payment is unfavourable in case of Pakistan. At present value of deficit in balance of payment is $ 8. 3 billion. Reduction in Wage Rate High growth rate of population is caused in more labour force and unemployment. There is absence of skill and training that leads to low wage rate. 12. Increase in Dependence Ratio Rapid rise in population growth increases the dependency ratio of unemployed population to employed population. Labour force is 54. 92 million of the population in Pakistan and remaining population is depending upon them. MEASURES TO CONTROL OVER POPULATION Following measures are suggested by the people and experts to check the rapidly raising population: Control the Birth Rate Effective and successful family planning should be introduced. Use of Medicines More contraceptive medicines should be introduced to people. By using these medicines; people will control the birth rate. Late Marriages Marriages should take place in late age to control the rapidly rising population. It will be helpful to control the over population. Health Centers Government should open the health clinics in all the regions of the country. These clinics will be useful for reducing the high birth rate. High Literacy Rate Government should provide the more educational facilities to the backward population. This will provide the true picture of the economy, resources and opulation growth rate. Literacy rate is 57. 7% in Pakistan. Women Employment Only 29 % women take an active part in the economic activities in Pakistan. They live full time at home and have no opportunity cost to have a baby. Family Planning Government should introduce the family planning to the population to control the high growth rate of population. Increase in Employment More employment opportunities must be provided to the young, talented, trained and educated population. It will be helpful to decrease the fast birth rate. Provision of Credit Facilities Government should provide the easy credit facilities to population to adjust the existing population in economic activities. It will lead to reduce the population explosion. Growth and development of small-scale and cottage industries is also necessary to reduce the pressure on land. It will provide more Jobs to men and also to women. Conclusion: High growth rate of population creates unfavorable effects on the economic development in the developing countries like Pakistan. High rate of population growth in Pakistan means poverty, illiteracy, low living standard, absence of prosperity and vicious circle of poverty.