Saturday, August 31, 2019
Old Spice is an exceptional brand founded on a rich history. It has succeeded in transforming itself from a brand that was more focused towards my generationÃ¢â¬â¢s grandparents to a new millennium sensation for younger crowds to utilize by using the market penetration product strategy. Proctor and Gamble currently owns the Old Spice brand and takes up a considerable amount of the menÃ¢â¬â¢s grooming market segment. Old Spice is still managing to maintain a competitive advantage and is growing toward its peak in its product life cycle with little product attributes that differentiate themselves from their competitors.Proctor and Gamble is currently expanding Old SpiceÃ¢â¬â¢s product mix and maintains competitive pricing. Old SpiceÃ¢â¬â¢s brand is promoted a highly rated advertising strategy and distributes its products intensively to retailers and wholesalers. The creator of Old Spice is George Schultz. He was introduced to the grooming market when he was 19 years old by work ing as a salesman for his father, William Schultz. WilliamÃ¢â¬â¢s company, Schulton Company, in the Bronx, New York in the mid 1930s. Schulton Company, originally named the Lightfoot Schultz Company, was formed in the 1920s and sold soap and toiletries.William Schultz came to the conclusion that he would never become wealthy selling a private label product during the Depression and decided to search for a product that he could trademark and capture the public eye. He met with Enid Edson, an artist, and searched for label designs through intensive research. It was only soon after when William Schultz developed the first Old Spice product. It was a female fragrance that was developed Ã¢â¬Å"from a memory of a rose jar his mother kept in the house, a combination of roses, cloves, herbs, and other spices, and called his new line of toiletries Early American Old Spice for Women. While this was happening, George Schultz pursued his chemical engineering degree while continuing to make mo ney from being a salesman for Schulton. He became the plant manager shortly after and moved Schulton to its current site in Clifton in 1946. William Schultz passed away in 1950 and George Schultz was selected as president of Schulton and continued to build the company. Proctor and Gamble then bought Old Spice in 1990. Old Spice market segmentation is now targeted towards the younger generation, typically ages fifteen and up, who are intending the look their best and smell genuinely masculine.Also, the brand is reaching out to females who want their partners to have masculine-scented grooming products. There are currently three lines of the Old Spice brand: High Endurance, Classic, and Red Zone. High Endurance is the basic line, Classic contains the original scent of Old Spice, and Red Zone is the higher-end of the brand line. This allows for market segmentation to be split even more towards the older crowd who enjoy the original scent of Old Spice, and also to those who enjoy the ne wer variety of scents. In 2011, Proctor and Gamble held 43% of the menÃ¢â¬â¢s grooming industryÃ¢â¬â¢s sales and currently selling at $66. 47 per share.Throughout the previous years Proctor and Gamble has been consistent with the market trend, including the economic downturn. However, Proctor and Gamble has been staying ahead of the market price per share by a large margin. Old SpiceÃ¢â¬â¢s product brand has evolved little over time. Its label has a consistent nautical theme to it. Its logo started off with a sailing vessel as a trademark. The original ships used on their products were the Grand Turk and the Friendship. In 1992, these tall ships were replaced with a yacht, giving the brand a more modern feel. Today, Old Spice uses the original tall ship theme that it originally used.Old Spice is involved in a wide brand extension as well. Starting off with aftershave lotion and shaving soap, the brand has extended to deodorant sticks, body wash, body spray, and other male groo ming products. As stated before, Old Spice was originally designed for women, but now is predominantly a male brand. It is amazing how successful Old Spice has been even though it has little product attributes that give them a sustainable competitive advantage. One of its product attributes include the distinctive red appearance that the brand has consistently kept since it was first developed.When you are in a menÃ¢â¬â¢s grooming section and you see the red products, you know that it is Old Spice. Also, it has developed a wide variety of different scents in the 2000s. Other than that, Old Spice has relied heavily on their advertising method that I will elaborate on later in this paper. I would argue that the productsÃ¢â¬â¢ life cycle is currently in between the growth and maturity stage. Old Spice has been able to maintain its competitive brand since the early 1900s and continues to dominate the menÃ¢â¬â¢s grooming segment.The Old Spice brand is presently attempting to expand its product mix. This directly represents their product strategy. They are focusing on market penetration and diversification. Market penetration is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"finding new customers for existing products. Ã¢â¬ Diversification in terms of marketing is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"developing new products and cultivating new markets. Old Spice is diversifying their products and potentially reaching out to new customers by doing so. From the Old Spice website, you can buy products that are not directly related to the male grooming market segment.One product that caught my attention was the deodorant protector. I am not quite sure why someone would need a deodorant protector, but maybe it is a way to show that the Old Spice product is valuable and a prized possession. The next product that caught my attention was a shirt with the famous Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m on a horseÃ¢â¬ quote spoken by Isaiah Mustafa in an Old Spice commercial. This product mix shows that Old Spice is taking risks in e xpanding their product selection and is willing to reach into other product lines. Product development of Old Spice dates back from 1937 to today.In 1937, Old SpiceÃ¢â¬â¢s first product, a female fragrance, was introduced and the first male products, a shaving soap and aftershave lotion was developed one year later in 1938. The product appearance is consistent with the nautical theme as seen with the buoy-shaped bottle and clipper ship logo on the front. Also, the brand kept its cursive Old Spice logo that signifies its historical lasting. After Old Spice was bought by Proctor and Gamble in 1990, the tall ship logo that Old Spice kept prevalent throughout the 20th century was modified to a yacht logo in February of 1992.Throughout the early 2000s, Old Spice has introduced various new scents, such as: After Hours, Komodo, Matterhorn, Aqua Reef, Swagger, Fiji, Cyprus, and many more. In 2008, the Old Spice brand decided to reintroduce its original scent to reach back to the brandÃ¢â ¬â¢s origin. This is shown by a a quote on the back of some Old Spice products that read, Ã¢â¬Å"The original. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re grandfather hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t worn it, you wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t exist. They also replaced the glass buoy-shaped bottles to plastic for durability and replaced the gray stoppers with red ones to be consistent with the red theme that Old Spice is known for.Proctor and Gamble has continued to keep Old Spice competitive in the male grooming market segment. The price of Old Spice products is either equal to or just slightly above its main competitors. Some of its closest important include Degree, Axe, Right Guard, Dial, Dove, Olay, and Nivea. In Wal-Mart, Old Spice deodorant typically sales for around $3. 97. This price gives them an advantage by providing the psychological factor to their consumers that Old Spice is a top brand product since it costs more than its primary competitors. Degree deodorant sales for $3. 87, Axe for $3. 47, and Right Guard for $3. 2. Right G uard and Degree brands are geared more toward the athlete hygienic market while Old Spice reaches out to not only that, but also toward men who just want to smell good. The Gillette brand is a competitive product with Old Spice but is owned by Proctor and Gamble and contributes to Proctor and GambleÃ¢â¬â¢s total market share. Old Spice distributes its products through an intensive distribution process. This process requires Ã¢â¬Å"the manufacturer to gain exposure through as many wholesalers and retailers as possible. Ã¢â¬ Some retailers that Old Spice distributes to are Wal-Mart, K-Mart, Target, and ShopRite.Wholesaler distribution includes convenience stores like CVS Pharmacy, Walgreens, Rite Aid, and small Ã¢â¬Å"mom and pop stores. Ã¢â¬ Old Spice is considered to be a product that many men need and is pushed through the market. Since Old Spice are a part of Proctor and Gamble, their products can be shipped out with other Proctor and Gamble products. This results in a ver y cost-effective distribution method for Proctor and Gamble. However, Old Spice may be involved with some difficulty when their business partners become resistant and slows down the distribution process, creating a thin line between partners and competitors.They become resistant because they may expect more of a profit from Proctor and Gamble since the company is so successful. Old Spice should consider distributing products on their own to reduce these conflicts and clear congestion in the distribution process. Old Spice packaging is in both gift sets and per unit that dates back to 1938. The original gift set packaging were cardboard boxes protected with lithograph thin wood veneer made by the Hull Pottery Company. The packaging had printed on it the ship Grand Turk, Mount Vernon, Brig Experiment, Friendship, and Recovery.The first major change in the gift set packaging was in 1955, replacing the wood-colored box with a solid red and giving the tall ship a more contemporary look b y whitening the sails and blackening the hull. Shortly after, in 1963 a gold compass was imprinted on the red gift set box and remained this way until 1970. Ten years later the gift set cover consisted of a series of copies of large traditional clipper ships that include the Hamilton, Wesley, Salem, and Birmingham. In 1977, four different gift set cover designs were introduced that included a collection of watercolor prints.These prints were of scenic harbors, such as the New Orleans Harbor, San Francisco Harbor, Savannah Harbor, and Mystic Harbor. Then, in the 1980s, the gift set packaging top was covered with a modern print of the products inside the package. Today, the Old Spice gift set maintains the print of products inside the package or contains a see through cover so the consumers can view the products themselves. The package remains red, the words remain cursive, but the red is a darker shade than the well-known bright red. Individual packaging per Old Spice product were fo r the original after-shave and cologne in the early 1940s.The box was wrapped in dark red paper and the glass bottles were white and buoy-shaped to display the nautical image that Old Spice portrays. The Old Spice logo consisted of cursive letters with the words Ã¢â¬Å"Early AmericanÃ¢â¬ above Ã¢â¬Å"Old SpiceÃ¢â¬ and had had scrollwork surrounding the lettering. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, the scrollwork was removed and the Old Spice letters were made larger. Today, the Old Spice individual packaging varies but has a consistent nautical theme that aims toward various consumers. Old Spice boosted its popularity and sales by a large margin when they launched the Ã¢â¬Å"Smell like a man, manÃ¢â¬ campaign in July of 2010.It was a commercial starring Isaiah Mustafa that immediately reached out to women by starting the video with Ã¢â¬Å"Hello, ladies. Ã¢â¬ He then continued convincing women that their man can smell like he is good looking by saying, Ã¢â¬Å"Look at your man. Now back at me. Now back at your man. Now back to me. Sadly, he isnÃ¢â¬â¢t me, but if he stopped using ladiesÃ¢â¬â¢ scented body wash and switched to Old Spice, he could smell like heÃ¢â¬â¢s me. Ã¢â¬ The commercial ended with Mustafa obviously stating, Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m on a horseÃ¢â¬ while sitting backwards on one. This video gained mass amounts of attention and had more than 6. million views on YouTube in just one day! This campaign was also promoted by creating a bathroom set with Mustafa, also known as the Ã¢â¬Å"Spice Man,Ã¢â¬ standing with just a towel on. Fans could then send the Spice Man questions on from Facebook and Twitter and four writers rapidly crafted responses to those questions that the Spice Man then answered with. There were 65 of these response videos uploaded and drew up to over 5. 2 million views on YouTube. In conclusion, Old Spice is a widely successful brand that was founded on a rich history during the Great Depression.Since then, the brand managed to reach millions of consumers to become one of the most popular male grooming products on the market today. They did so with little modifications to product packaging and appearance. Proctor and Gamble was a huge factor in Old SpiceÃ¢â¬â¢s success and continues to lead Old Spice through itÃ¢â¬â¢s growth stage in its product life. Their intensive distribution strategy and competitive pricing puts them on top and helps Old Spice maintain about 43% of the menÃ¢â¬â¢s grooming market. Old SpiceÃ¢â¬â¢s nautical theme is strong, confident, and masculine.Like the product says, Ã¢â¬Å"If your grandfather hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t worn it, you wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t exist. Ã¢â¬ Works Cited Berner, Robert. Ã¢â¬Å"Old Spice's Extreme Makeover. Ã¢â¬ Ã Businessweek. com. Bloomberg Businessweek, 01 Nov. 2004. Web. 12 Mar. 2012. . Cover, John C. Proctor and Gamble: A Marketing Technique. 1967. Print. Newman, Andrew A. Ã¢â¬Å"Old Spice Argues That Real Men Smell Good. Ã¢â¬ Ã Nytimes. com. New York Times. Web. 12 Mar. 2012. . Ã¢â¬Å"Old Spice. Ã¢â¬ Ã Old Spice.Web. 12 Mar. 2012. . Ã¢â¬Å"Old Spice Collectibles. Ã¢â¬ Ã Old Spice Collectibles. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. . Ã¢â¬Å"PG: Summary for Procter ; Gamble Company (The) Ã¢â¬â Yahoo! Finance. Ã¢â¬ Ã Yahoo! Finance. Web. 12 Mar. 2012. . Ã¢â¬Å"Procter ; Gamble. Ã¢â¬ Ã PG. com Home: Sustainability, Company, Brands. Web. 12 Mar. 2012. . Ã¢â¬Å"Proctor and Gamble. Ã¢â¬ Ã United States American History. Web. 12 Mar. 2012. .
Friday, August 30, 2019
26th of January 1950 was the day when India got its own constitution and became biggest democratic nation of the world. Since then this day has been celebrated as national festival and called as Republic day of India. In this essay we have provided, not only the glimpse of Republic day celebration but also interesting images for attraction of kids.Republic Day of IndiaIndia is the world's biggest democratic nation. Though India got freedom against British rule on 15th of August 1947, but till 1950 we do not have our own law and order to follow. The 26th of January 1950, was the dawn of world's biggest democracy, when we got our own constitution and India became a republic nation. From then on, this day has been declared as a national festival of India and we celebrate this day as Republic Day of India. The word republic means a country that is ruled by people, elected by the the people of that nation.Today we have completed 63 years with our own constitution and proud to be a part of the world's biggest democracy. This is our privilege that we are the citizens of a secular nation. Our constitution provides us freedom to travel anywhere in India, freedom to adopt any religion we like to follow, we can arrange public meeting; we can express and share our thoughts etc. Being a citizen of a democratic nation, we not only have many rights but also many responsibilities to carry out.Republic day celebrationOn 26th January of every year, we celebrate our Republic day. This is India's national festival and also declared as national holiday. On the eve of Republic day, cultural programmes are arranged in school, colleges and different public places. Political and social meeting also arranged for considering social and national issues. National flag is furled not only at government offices but also at public places. National anthem beats inspire the countrymen with feelings of patriotism.The main attraction of Republic day is the special Republic day parade taken out at Rajpath, in front of India gate in our capital Delhi. Early in the morning people from all over India, start to gather at Rajpath to watch this parade. People, who can't go there, watch it on television. Some foreign ministers are also invited as chief guests on this occasion. Indian Prime minister with other ministers and chiefs of armed forces also arrive at Rajpath. With the arrival of Indian President and foreign chief guest, the national flag furls sky high.The bravery awards are distributed to brave soldiers, martyrs, brave citizens and brave children. Brave children are brought by elephants on this occasion. After this Republic day parade starts with the flag march of all Indian forces. Indian president takes the salute of all Indian armed forces. Armed strength of the country has been shown in this parade. Tableau from many states of India and Union territories, are the center of attraction for everyone on this occasion. The Rashtrapati Bhawan and important government buildi ngs are decorated with light in the evening.How we should celebrate this festival?This is the festival of proud for our nation. Every countryman should participate in this occasion. We should also remember our freedom fighters on this day. This is an occasion of patriotism, unity; peace, love, proud, happiness and inspiration. We should make some principle on this occasion and try to be loyal to our duties and nation.Here are some promises; every countryman should do to himself and nation:Ã¢â¬ ¢ We shall root out all evils from our society and nation. Ã¢â¬ ¢ We shall respect our constitution Ã¢â¬ ¢ We will always remember our freedom fighter and golden heritage of our country. Ã¢â¬ ¢ We shall feel proud to be the part of India. Ã¢â¬ ¢ We shall spread the spirit of united India. Ã¢â¬ ¢ We shall root out corruption from our society. Ã¢â¬ ¢ We shall make our people literate. Ã¢â¬ ¢ We shall protect our national resources and save our environment. Ã¢â¬ ¢ We shall follow princip les of our great ministers.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Cohorting Colonized Low Risk Patients with MRSA and Using Universal Precautions will Increase Patient Satisfaction, Improve pati - Research Proposal Example Since the aim is to cut-down the running costs of hospitals by implementation of newer method, the collection of cost-related data from hospital authorities to make comparisons is also part of this study. B. Study population i. Setting The best possible avenue for this study could be a general hospital, as the availability of multiple specialties provides an opportunity to work in a coordinated manner with all specialties who can possibly contribute to this study. A hospital with a Department of Infectious Disease will be preferred for this study. As the Department of Infectious Disease works with nearly all other departments of the hospital, its position is central in contributing not only to the hospital but also to this study. Presence of an isolation ward is mandatory for this study, due to the fact that MRSA infected cases are the subjects of this study, and they require isolation. In addition to this, a reasonable turnover of patients is also expected to be the norm of the sele cted hospital. The reason for this is the fact that, the higher the number of subjects enrolled for this study, the better will be the results. ii. Subject selection Various specialties of hospital will be informed about the ongoing study. They will be requested to report to the Infectious Disease Department, the presence of suspected cases of MRSA. These cases will then be evaluated in order to make sure they are suitable candidates for this study. A total of twenty patients will be selected from those who are being treated under contact isolation while another twenty will be selected from among those who are receiving universal precautions. Patients who are unable to communicate verbally will not be selected as subjects for this study, as this study also involves interviewing the subjects to assess their wellbeing. Mentally ill patients or children under the age of 13 will also be excluded from this study. iii. Subject recruitment strategy The subjects will be recruited from the h ospital. A clear-cut written guideline/checklist will be provided to the assisting hospital staff for the purpose of selection of candidates. Assistance will be sought from the hospital management and the hospital staff, especially doctors and nurses, who will help to identify the patients who fit the profile for the purpose of this research. Gaining assistance from hospital staff will also decrease our study cost, as the hospitals staff is often well aware of their patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ conditions and the need to test them again for being suitable for the study-under-consideration will not exist. Willingness of patients to become part of this study will be sought after explaining to them the importance of this study, and how they can contribute to the overall wellbeing of humanity by being part of this study. The consent of each patient will be gained after explaining the purpose and scope of the study. C. Study variables i. Independent variables The independent variables for this study will include the frequency of use of universal procedures compared with the frequency of use of gloves and gowns byhospital staff in the course of their interaction with MRSA patients. These variables will help to determine the incidence of infections transmitted from MRSA patients under study to other patients and staff members in the hospital.It will include the instances where
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Principle of Management - Essay Example In this essay the researcher analyzes the main problems and issues being faced by Jack Grayson. Jack Grayson was the local general manager of the Bridge Building Company. JackÃ¢â¬â¢s father had founded the company in the 1950's. He had been a civil engineer, and the company had specialized in that type of work, cashing in on the construction of new motorways in the UK in the 1950's and 1960's. Jack is the main character of the case study we have to analyze his style and management techniques employed by him. The main areas that the researcher focused in this essay were: collective bargaining at enterprise level, flexibility in relation to various forms of employment as well as in relation to working time and job functions. The researcher uses Point to Point Analysis to provide some glimpses of Jack Ã¢â¬Ës dialogues showing his positive and negative aspects of his character and attitude. To conclude, the researcher sums up that Jack was dragged into a tricky situation by his own f aulty aggressive attitude. Although, Jack had some psychological issues that were mentioned in the essay, he proved that he is intelligent enough to understand his errors and correct them timely. He done so and provided his team an opportunity to sort out their differences and errors, which was a right thing to do. He gave ample time with a blend of warning so that every one gets super active and do the job. The researcher states that Jack proved successful work attitude and avoided an eminent threat to very existence of the branch of the Bridge Building Company.
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Two sides on branding - Essay Example Naomi Klein's book,as it title implies is a criticism to the proliferation of branding strategies launched by business organisations in order to capture customers.The selection lifted from her book outlined the evolution of branding-from its earliest beginning, downfall, recovery, and recent expansion.The concept of branding, according to Klein, began with the company's recognition that production is not the main core of their operations but marketing. The earliest proponents of marketing like Nike and Microsoft stated that manufacturing is only an "incidental" part of their operations and that they are not selling "products" but "images of their brands." This early beginnings started a new age of branding previously homogenous, mass-produced commodities replacing the old shopkeeper who traditionally scoops out generic products like sugar, flour, and cereal in barrels. The popularity of Dr. Brown, Aunt Jemima, Uncle Ben, and Old Grand Dad became synonymous with the ascent of branded generic commodities.However, the death of branding came one Marlboro Friday as Phillip Morris is threatened by the intense competition from lower priced unbranded competitors. With this happening, a dramatic shift in customers' buying behavior was illustrated-from prestige to price consciousness.The article concluded with the "rebirth" and expansion of branding. This phenomenon was lead by established companies like Body Shop and Starbucks which were able to safeguard and even expand their market share by investing in their brand images. These, together with other successful companies like Nike, began the more rapid proliferation of branded products which does not only market the attributes of the product by created a "concept" to establish an "emotional connection" with its clients. Naomi Klein concluded that with this age of branding, customers are easily manipulated by branding tactics as marketers can establish a good brand even with the lowliest products. She argued that instead of focusing on production and improving products, companies are embarking and spending time, effort, and money in creating a good brand for which they ask customers for a premium. The Economist-Who's Wearing the Trousers The article lifted from the Economist, hold an antagonistic position on Naomi Klein's book. Though it also recognizes the good arguments raced by Klein, the Economist offer a very different view on what the first author referred to as "brand bullies." Basically, the article presented in the Economist can be summed up into two points-the first one being the exaggeration of Naomi Klein's argument on the power of brands, and the second one on the manipulation of the customers by the branding strategies of the large corporations. The Economist recognizes the importance of brands in selling a company's products. However, it claims that Klien's article exaggerated the role of branding in the strategies of the large business organizations. The article proved this by citing the case of the companies who spent bulk of financial resources in creating a good brand only to fail. As the company treats a "brand" as one of its primary assets, a brand can also be regarded as liability as it makes a company highly responsible in the damages which it can give to customers. Customer loyalty is not only rooted on their perception on brand. This is evidenced by the recent research which shows that customers of all ages shift from brand to brand. This also strengthens the claim of the Economist claim that customers are not highly manipulated by company's branding tactics. It is also irrefutable that companies' are spending a lot of money to retain their customers and develop their products to safeguard their brand. Between the Two Articles Naomi Klein and the Economist hold two seemingly different arguments about branding, company's performance, and customers. The two articles summarized above show some same
Monday, August 26, 2019
My leadership philosophy - Personal Statement Example This leadership philosophy is assisted by defining my values in life. My personal values are a sense of duty, integrity, courage, loyalty, respect, selfless service and honor. These values are committed to be adhered at all times and despite encountering various challenges. I also have recognized that one of the guiding principles that should support a leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s actions is compliance with the ethics of reciprocity. Just like what President Harry Truman affirmed in his speech entitled Ã¢â¬Å"A Public Man Must Live in the PresentÃ¢â¬ , he believed that Ã¢â¬Å"the fundamental basis for a happy life with family and friends is to treat others as you would like to be treated, speak truthfully, act honorably and keep commitments to the letterÃ¢â¬ (Truman par. 2). This principle, likewise applies to subordinates and colleagues, alike. In carrying out oneÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibilities, one must be aware that leaders must have the ability to understand, not only the scope of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s duties; but also the impact that oneÃ¢â¬â¢s role and responsibilities contribute to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s followers, to various stakeholders, and to the organization, as a whole. Thus, leaders do not only have the obligation to carry out the responsibilities explicitly defined in their professional portfolio; more so, leaders should have the innate skills and genuine commitment to ensure that the responsibilities that must be carried out by his or her followers, must be duly accomplished, with proper motivation, guidance, direction, coaching, and mentoring strategies, which would facilitate and encourage them, wholeheartedly, to achieve. My priorities, therefore, are also my commitment to undertake my responsibilities in the organization which I serve; and also to act and behave according to ethical, moral, and legal standards. I was influenced and strongly affected by the words from John McCain, in
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Article critique - Essay Example Participants/Subjects The participants/subjects consisted of 22 adolescents between the ages of 13 and 19 from a school for children suffering from physical maladies. The students were selected from a random population sample and divided into two groups: an experimental group and a control group. Both groups were subjected to a three month training program which proceeded three times each week. Tests measuring walking speeds, gross motor skills and muscle tone were conducted both prior to and after the program commenced and ended. The control groupÃ¢â¬â¢s program consisted of treatment and traditional physiotherapy which involved three exercise regiments with balance, gait, mat and Ã¢â¬Å"functional gross motor activitiesÃ¢â¬ (Chrysagis, et. al., 2012, p. 747). The experimental groupÃ¢â¬â¢s program consisted of treadmill training without the use of support for body weight and with a Ã¢â¬Å"comfortable speedÃ¢â¬ (Chrysagis, et. al., 2012, p. 747). Findings At the conclusion of the three month program research findings indicated that there were appreciable differences between the experimental group and the control group in terms of GMF and walking speeds. In both cases, the experimental groupÃ¢â¬â¢s GMF and walking speed scores were greater than those for the control group. There was no significant difference in the muscle tone outcomes between the two groups. Thus results of the study indicate that treadmill training may contribute to an improvement in walking speeds and GFM of ambulatory adolescents with cerebral palsy without having a negative impact on muscle tone. Limitations of the Study The study is limited by the fact that it was conducted among a relatively small population sample. The population sample consisted of only 22 adolescents and when divided into two groups further narrowed the sample down to 11 in each group. The validity of the results among such a small population is further compromised by the fact that the students were selecte d from the same school. Selecting all students from one facility where they share the same physical education regiment indicates that the results of the study may very well be related to other physical education activities shared by the group at school. The difference in the outcome may have been mere coincidence since the sample sizes were so small. A larger sample population among students from different schools would have made the results more valid. Authors Acknowledge Limitations The authors pointed out limitations of their own. The acknowledged limitations included the observation that the student participants were not tested for muscle strength and endurance and that the results of the test may have been influenced by muscle strength and endurance. The authors also noted that interventions and support during the training program by physical therapists might have contributed to the results of the study as well. Implications The study can be useful to physical education teacher s who train ambulatory students with cerebral palsy. It indicates that the treadmill can be a safe alternative for students with cerebral palsy to possibly improve walking speed and GMF, if used with the help of physical therapists or with close supervision. Next Study Based on the results of the study and the limitations reported I would conduct further research on the impact of the treadmill on muscle, tone, strength and endurance, GMF and Walking Speed of adolescents with
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Macroeconomic Objectives and their Importance to UK Economy - Essay Example Low Inflation The emerging objectives and macroeconomic framework has is expected to deal with challenges that come from inflation and economic uncertainty. The inflation is the United Kingdom stood at 2.4 percent at the beginning of 2013. This has been occasioned by a fall in price of diesel and petrol. The price seems to have temporarily stabilized. The energy costs have declined. This includes housing, recreation and culture goods. The macroeconomic framework is based on transparency, responsibility and accountability. The aim is to ensure that the government works through clear objectives for fiscal and monetary policy. The government of UK believes that constrained discretion can help in meeting long term macroeconomic grows. Under this framework, the government of United Kingdom is expected to meet the objectives simultaneously (Greener 2001). This approach is boosted by the fact that some of the objectives and complementary and interdependent with each other. Balance of Paymen t This occurs when an induced balance of payment transactions is zero. In this case, the government of the UK is responsible for influencing the exchange rates. The government is determined to ensure that the imports to not exceed the exports. This is done through avoiding fixed exchange rates and promoting a culture that is more productive that consumptive. The government hopes to control the exchange movement given the exchange rates is flexible. This might prevent the sterling from depreciating further. Balancing is payment equilibrium affects the holding of foreign exchange with affects the local economy. The government is developing a policy that ensures maintenance... This essay is one of the best examples of analysis of the main directions of the macroeconomic policy, carried out by UK government. Macroeconomics refers to aggregate activities carried out by government, individuals or the government. Objectives are the aims of the policy being used by the government. The government of the United Kingdom targets a consumer index of over 2 percent. The government also intends to ensure sustainable growth through maintaining low inflation and ensuring proper control on the environmental growth. The UK government has an objective of ensuring high levels of employment through increasing opportunities for full employment. The government is developing a grand macroeconomic policy framework that defines the roles of the major economy sector and how they can strengthen the competitiveness of the UK economy. The sectors include financial and housing. The policy intends to manage consumption. After the consumption boom, the domestic market created a strong demand that caused the UK exports not to grow as fast as expected. The State is acknowledging its failure in having a reformed policy. The plan by the government to develop a comprehensive macroeconomic framework states when and how the objectives are going to be achieved. It is possible to achieve the objectives if the steering committee remains flexible and responsive to economic dynamics. The macroeconomic policy framework intends to use better metrics and real median incomes in assessing the economic policies and objectives.
Friday, August 23, 2019
WZH-MIT-Essay1-3-0920-ec - Essay Example I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t care to listen and accredit the much valued experience of my subordinates. A daily non-interactive reporting system was scheduled with scarce chance of consultation and negotiation. I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t recognize that in the trial to be an effective Ã¢â¬ËauthoritativeÃ¢â¬â¢ leader, I turned my self to be a mere Ã¢â¬ËauthoritarianÃ¢â¬â¢ leader. As the interaction factor was lacking, there was no space for a healthy debate and no disagreement was expressed on the decisions made. I was also hesitant in taking help from subordinates even though I lacked the expertise in many of the technical and practical issues. Rather than looking for some wise capacity building ideas, I tried to masquerade my lack of knowledge with the authority I had, resulting in doubtful decisions. Things started to back fire as these decisions proved wrong and even led to the rejection of goods by clients. On this development, my supervisor intervened privately and we had a detailed discussion on my setbacks .He pointed out my drawbacks, and gently advised me on the qualities a good leader should have. In this process, I observed an ideal leader in him, as he heard and understood me, was inspiring and had respect for my thoughts and observations. Well blended with his experience, the discussion pointed out the lacking factors in the team and the leader. I realized the need of being more mature in leadership and collaborative team work. From there on, I ensured to accredit the experience of my team members and devised an effective communication with them. The morning meeting continued, but in a collective way discussing the issues and scopes, resulting in final plans to be put into practice. I made it a routine that each staff was heard to .The team was inspired to be bold in innovations, taking care of the quality standards. Subsequently, I developed integrity by improvising my technical understanding. All the required resources were ensured to the